From IFCG Encyclopedia

Wi-Fi is a wireless data transmission technology based on the communication standard IEEE 802.11. It usually works in a 2.4 or 5 GHz bandwidth. This technology can operate in one of the two modes:

  • communication between devices through a Wi-Fi access point. It is mainly used by mobile devices to connect to the Internet.
  • direct communication between devices. It is widely used by home appliances to communicate with other devices (computers, mobile phones), e.g., this mode may be used to remotely control refrigerator freezing rate.

The Wi-Fi brand covers quite a lot of different standards with distinct technical specifications. Different countries have their own requirements to devices that use radio waves to transfer data. All this should be taken into account during importation of products. In Russia, the State Commission for Radio Frequencies (SCRF) is responsible for regulation of use of radio frequency bands. The commission sets permissible characteristics of radio equipment and high-frequency devices (REQ/HFD), and also assigns different frequency bands to different product categories.

Cryptographic characteristics of Wi-Fi

Secure operation in a Wi-Fi network is ensured through cryptographic data protection mechanisms: WEP, WPA, or WPA2, used to encrypt all transmitted data. WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is an obsolete security protocol for Wi-Fi networks (encryption by the RC4 algorithm with a 40- or 104-bit key size). On modern computers it may be broken within a few minutes and, therefore, is not recommended to use. WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) and its upgraded version WPA2 are more secure protocols that use more secure mechanisms to protect data. WPA2 not only provides encryption with the 128-bit AES algorithm, but also ensures mandatory authentication of users via the EAP protocol. Besides, stronger data integrity check mechanisms prevent tampering with or altering of the transmitted data.

Importation of Wi-Fi products to Russia

Importation of devices with certain Wi-Fi standards may require a License from the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The license is required to import products that utilize the following Wi-Fi standards:

  • 802.11ah — 900 MHz;
  • 802.11y — 3655-3695 MHz;
  • 802.11j — 4940-4990 MHz;
  • 802.11p — 5.85-5.925 GHz, 755-765 GHz;
  • 802.11aj — 42.3-47.0 GHz, 47.2-48.4 GHz;
  • 802.11af — 54-60, 76-82, 82-88, 470-602, 614-698 MHz.

No license is required to import products using the following Wi-Fi standards [1]

  • 802.11b, 802.11g — 2.4 GHz;
  • 802.11a, 802.11n — 2.4 GHz, 5180-5660 GHz;
  • 802.11ac — 5150-5250, 5250-5350, 5725-5850 GHz;
  • 802.11ad, 802.11ay — 57-66 GHz.

However, in practice lack of the necessity to provide any permits is often question by customs officers. It is recommended to prepare exemption letters from the Main Radio Frequency Center (MRFC) and/or the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor) in such cases.

Besides, importation of devices with Wi-Fi modules to Russia may also require a FSS Notification, EAC Declaration or Certificate, and a Declaration (Certificate) for Communication Devices for market sale later.


  1. Provided that transmitting power is less than 100 mW.

See also